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What is cancer?

cancer review

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The word cancer spreads terror among people in the society. cancer is the abnormal proliferation of the cells, giving rise to more daughter cells than normal.

cancer is an alteration to the normal structure of the cell. This abnormality isn’t restricted to a particular organ, it affects all tissues in the body system.

Cancer review, course and treatment

There are over 500 types of cancer with more been discovered every day.

One major fact about cancer is that, it develops as a result of the alteration of one’s genetic makeup, resulting in uncontrolled cell division.

The increase in the rate of cancer has been attributed to technological hazard and consumption of chemical substance that contains a carcinogen.

Most technical devices emit radiation which is harmful to the internal and external organs in the body.

chemicals used in storing most of our canned products increase the risk of getting cancer.


Causes of Cancer and cancer review
The major causes of cancer are carcinogen, viruses, drugs, and hormones.
A carcinogen is of two types namely: chemical and physical carcinogen.

Chemical carcinogen

A chemical carcinogen is a substance which causes cancer as a result of prolonged use of the harmful chemical substance.

Most people affected by the chemical carcinogen are found among industrial workers who uses this chemical substance as a by-product during production.

Chemical carcinogen includes Asbestos, mustard gas, Arsenic, cigarette smoking and many more.

Physical carcinogen

Physical carcinogen causes damage to the cell just as chemical carcinogen does. this type of carcinogen exist in three forms:

– Ionizing Radiation.
– Ultraviolet Radiation.
– Foreign Bodies.

Frequent Exposure to Ionizing Radiation may alter the cell genetic makeup resulting in permanent transformation.

Ultraviolet Radiation from the sun also causes damages to the skin which may result in skin cancer, though the rate of the sun causing cancer is minimal.

Drugs and Hormones

Certain drugs and hormones have the ability to interact with the DNA, these carcinogen

drugs causes Leukaemia, Bladder cancer, skin cancer and liver cancer.


Viruses are not the major causes of cancer, they only as one of the multiple agents working to initiate carcinogenesis.

Virus present in DNA and RNA can transform the cells that have been affected causing malignant transformation.

Types of cancer

Cancers are classified as either malignant or benign.

Leukemia cancer

Leukemia is known as cancer of the blood, it occurs as a result of an abnormality in the bone marrow,

resulting in the overproduction of white blood cells. Leukemia is common among children than adults.

These abnormal cells can’t carry out the assigned function of the white blood cell, eventually they crowd the bone

marrow and spill into the blood which spreads to vital organs such as liver, kidney, and lungs.

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As a result of being overcrowded the bone marrow can’t make red blood cells, white blood cell and platelets.

The most dangerous thing about Leukaemia is that it springs up suddenly and multiplies rapidly within a few days.

Leukemia can be chronic or acute which occurs mostly in children.

Sarcoma Cancer

Sarcoma Cancer is referred to as soft tissue cancer, it affects tissues like muscles, tendons, cartilage and soft connective organs.

Sarcoma cancers are hard to recognize because their symptoms sometimes get confused with other conditions.

symptoms arise from either side of the neck where lymph glands are present.

Major causes of sarcoma are toxins found in our food, environment and exposure to radiation.


Brain and Spinal cord

These two vital organs make up the CNS, the site for interpreting message and signals in the body system.

Cancerous tumors are found in this part. Surgery and radiation are the common ways of treating brain and Spinal cord cancer.


Carcinomas are malignancies that originates from the epithelial tissue. This type of cancer affects the breast, lung, ovary, and prostate.


It is more common in adults than in children. Children are affected by Leukaemia than carcinomas.

Prevention of Cancer

– Reduce Exposure to carcinogenic substance.

– Engage in regular exercise

– Eat natural foods.

– Reduced intake of salt, smoked and foods high in nitrate content.

– Always have an adequate amount of rest after each day activities.

– Eat a balanced diet.

– conduct self-examination regularly especially on the breast for breast cancer treatments.

– seek immediate medical attention if cancer is detected.

Treatment of cancer (cancer review)

The treatment process for cancer is a long one, it takes month or years for the affected cells to go back to normal. cancer treatment is in four forms namely:

– Surgery
– Radiation therapy
– chemotherapy
– Biological response modifiers


Surgery is the oldest form of cancer treatment still in practice, proving to be the most effective

method for cancer diagnostic. There is a various form of surgical procedure which includes:

Biopsy: this is the removal of a piece of tissue from the affected area.

Reconstructive surgery: the major aim of this surgery is to improve the patient’s quality of life.

Palliative surgery: this surgery attempts to relieve the complications caused by cancer.

Surgery for primary Lesion: the goal of this surgery is to completely cure cancer.

Radiation therapy

This is a local treatment method for cancer. Radiation therapy retards the ability of cells to reproduce abnormally.

Rapidly dividing cells like cancerous cells are more likely to get destroyed by radiation. Radiation therapy can be used externally and internally.


Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer with chemical substance like drugs. Antineoplastic are


drugs used to prevent tumor cells from reproducing, these drugs attack tumor cells, destroying them in the process.

Factors which determines the response of cancerous cells to chemotherapy are

the size of the tumor, Age of tumor and where tumors are located.
A side effect of Treatment


This is the destruction of air follicles as a result of chemotherapy and radiation.

Most people suffering from cancer experience severe hair loss, which may result in baldness.

Nausea and vomiting

Certain drugs used by cancer victims may stimulate the vomiting center in the brain.

Other side effects experienced as a result of chemotherapy and radiation include Anaemia, Anorexia,

Diarrhea, and constipation. Cancer may lead to death if not properly managed. So the choice is yours.

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